We live in an analogue world. There are an infinite amount of colours to paint an object. There is an infinite number of tones we can hear, and an infinite number of smells that we can smell. Here, common among all these analogue signals is their infinite possibilities. Similarly, there are two types of computers: analogue computers and digital computers.
Work with complex signals and objects or finite values. This can mean that the two total possible values are 0 and 1. Thus, in the real world, entities are displaying data, giving inputs either through analogue or digital means.
Working with Knicks means both analogue and digital signal input and output. Here, we’ll cover the basics of analogue computers.
What is Analog Computer
Analog computer, any class of devices in which continuously variable physical quantities such as electric potential, fluid pressure, or mechanical motion are represented in an analogue manner in analogue quantities to solve problems.
They do not use different values but use constant values. Thus these computers work on an analogue signal. Furthermore, these signals are continuous signals with time-varying characteristics.
Analog computers are used for some specific applications, such as flight computers in aircraft, ships, submarines, and some devices in our daily lives such as refrigerators, speedometers, etc.
Analogue Computer in English
A computer in which for each instantaneous value of the variable quantity in the original relation there is an instantaneous value of another (computer) quantity, often differing from the original in physical character and scale. For every elementary mathematical operation on a computer quantity, as a rule, there exists some corresponding physical law,
which determines the mathematical relationship between physical quantities at the output and input of a computing element (for example, Ohm and Kirchhoff’s laws expressions for the Hall effect for electrical circuits, for the Lorentz force, and so on).
The way in which the original data is presented and the individual computing units are constructed is, to a large extent, the relatively high operating rate of analogue computers and the simplicity of programming and creation, but this limits the accuracy of the application and the results obtained. An analogue computer is also notable for its less general-purpose utility; When moving from solving one class of problem to another, it is necessary to change the structure of the computer and the number of computing elements.
Definition of Digital Computer
These computers work on a digital signal. These signals represent data as a series of different values. But, it can only take a limited number of values at any given time.
Specifically, digital computers use the binary number system, which consists of two digits, i.e., 0 and 1. A binary digit is called a bit. Thus, they represent and store information in groups of bits. The main advantages of digital computers are their accuracy and fast speed.
Also, these are re-programmable and their outputs are least affected by external disturbances. Some examples of digital computers are desktops, laptops, calculators, smartphones etc.
Types of Analog Computers
Types of Analog Computer
1) Slide Rules
It is the simplest and most recognizable mechanical analogue computer. It is a tool for approximating basic mathematical calculations. The user slides a hashed rod to line up with the various markings on another rod. They read the device based on the lineup of different hash marks.
2) Differential Analyzers
It is a well known mechanical analog computer and is capable of solving differential equations. The differential analyzer was refined in the 1930s. Machines are bigger than modern computers.
3) The Castle Clock
This is a good representation of the various uses for mechanical analog computers. It was invented by Al-Jarzi and was able to save programming instructions. A computational part of this tool allowed users to set a variable length of day based on the current weather.
4) Electronic Analog Computers
Modern analog computers are using electrical signals flowing through various resistors and capacitors. These are not using mechanical contact of components. Provides a voltage display of the signal. Electronic analog computers are also in widespread use for computing and military technology.
5) An Overview of Analog computer
It is an important fact that analogue computers use continuous values and not discrete values.
Analog computers are also immune to quantitative noise, which is not the case with digital. Programming on an analog computer involves the conversion of problematic equations to analog computer circuits.
Thus we can conclude with some advantages associated with analog computers. Real-time operation and simultaneous calculations are also possible with the help of analog computers. Analog computers can provide information for users about problems and errors in case of analogue issues.
History of Analog Computer
The earliest analog computers were special-purpose machines, for example, the tide predictor developed by William Thomson (later known as Lord Kelvin) in 1873.
On the same lines, A.A. Michelson and S.W. Stratton built a harmonic analyzer (q.v.) in 1898 with 80 components. Each of these was capable of producing a sinusoidal motion, which could be multiplied by a constant factor by the adjustment of a fulcrum on the lever.
The components were connected by means of springs to form the resultant. Another milestone in the development of the modern analog computer was the invention of the so-called differential analyzer by Vannevar Bush, an American electrical engineer, and his colleagues in the early 1930s. This machine, which used mechanical integrators (gears of variable speed) to solve differential equations, was the first practical and reliable device of its kind.
Most current electronic analog computers work by manipulating the potential difference (voltage). Their basic component is an operational amplifier, a device whose output current is proportional to its input potential difference.
By allowing this output current to flow through the appropriate components, further potential differences are obtained, and a variety of mathematical operations, including inversion, summation, differentiation, and integration, can be performed on them.
A typical electronic analogue computer consists of several types of amplifiers, which can be combined, sometimes with great complexity, and with a variety of variables, to produce mathematical expressions.
Which is the first analog computer
The earliest known analogue computer is the astrolabe. Built-in Greece during the 1st century BC, this instrument used pointers and scales on its fore and an intricate arrangement of bronze gears to predict the motion of the sun, planets and stars. Other early measuring instruments were also analog computers.
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