Batch Operating System :- In the beginning, computers were very large machines that operated from a single console. In general, tape drivers or card readers were used for input, and tape drives, punch cards, and line printers were used for output. Users Users had no direct interface with the system, and task execution was done in a batch system. These systems are known as Batched Operating Systems, and users have to create a separate job to execute it.
There were no developed operating systems, complex computer architectures, or secondary memory devices in the 1950s and 1960s. Instead, larger mainframe computers were used to process the data, with punch cards or magnetic tapes acting as inputs and outputs. The primary problem at the time was the lack of hard disks.
In the early 1950s, General Motors Research Laboratories (GMRL) introduced the first single-stream batch processing system. It executed only one task at a time, and the data was sent in batches or groups. Eliminates the problem of batch operating system setup time.
In this article, you will learn about batch operating system, types, working and its advantages and disadvantages.
What is Batch Operating System
Batch processing was very popular in the 970s. Jobs were executed in batches. People used to have only one computer called mainframe. Users using batch operating systems do not interact directly with the computer.
Each user creates their work using an offline device such as a punch card and submitting it to the computer operator. Jobs with similar requirements are grouped and executed as a group to expedite processing. Once programmers leave their program to the operator, they serialize programs with similar requirements into batches.
What are examples of batch processing operating systems?
- Payroll System
- Bank Invoice System
- Transaction System
- Daily Report
- Research Section
Batch Operating System Meaning
The batch processing system works as an operating system. A batch processing system means to take all types of programs and data in batch form and then proceed to process. The main purpose of using a batch processing system is to reduce the set up time while submitting the same task to the CPU.
Batch Monitor is started to execute all the pooled jobs after they have been read. These jobs are divided into groups, and finally, similar jobs are performed for the same batch before. Now all batch jobs are ready for execution one by one without wasting much time, and this system increases system utilization while reducing turnaround time.
Batch operating system groups jobs that perform similar tasks. These job groups are treated as a batch and executed together. A computer system with this operating system performs the following batch processing activities:
- A job is a single unit containing a preset sequence of commands, data, and programs.
- Processing takes place in the order in which they are received, ie first come, first served.
- These jobs are stored in memory and are executed without the need for manual information.
- When a task is run successfully, the operating system releases its memory.
How many types of batch operating systems?
There are mainly two types of batch operating systems. These are as follows:
Simple Batched System
Multi-programmed batched system
1. Simple Batched System
The user did not directly interact with the computer system for task execution in a simple batch operating system. However, the user was required to create a job that included the program on the control card, control information, and data on the nature of the job. The job was then assigned to a computer operator,
Which was usually in the form of a punch card. The output of the program contained the results and registers and memory dumps in the event of a program error. Output appeared after some time which can take days, hours and minutes.
Its main role was to transfer control from one job to another. Jobs with similar requirements were grouped together and processed through a processor to improve processing speed. Operators were used in the program to create batches with similar requirements. Runs batches one by one when the computer is available. The system typically reads a sequence of jobs, each with its own control cad and predefined job tasks.
2. Multi-programmed batched system
Spooling deals with multiple jobs that have already been read and are waiting to run on disk. A disk that contains a pool of jobs allows the operating system to choose which jobs to run next to maximize CPU usage
Job cannot be run in any other order, directly on magnetic tape or card. Jobs are run sequentially as they are executed on a first-come, first-served basis.
When different jobs are stored on a direct access device, job scheduling becomes possible like on a disk. Multi-programming is an important feature of job scheduling. For overlapped I/O, spooling and offline operation have their limitations.
In a multi-programmed batch system, jobs are grouped so that the CPU can execute only one task at a time to improve CPU utilization. Operating system keeps different jobs in memory at a time. The operating system selects a task and starts executing it in memory. Finally, the task must wait for a task to complete, such as an I/O operation on a tape mount
In a multiprogramming system, it does not idle as the operating system switches to another task. When a task is in a waiting state, and the current task is completed, the CPU returns.
Why are batch operating systems used?
Batch operating systems load less stress on the CPU and involve minimal user interaction, and that’s why you can use them nowadays. Another advantage of batch operating systems is that large repetitive tasks can be performed without interacting with the computer to notify you of the system after that task is finished.
Older batch operating systems were not interactive, meaning that the user did not interact with the program while it was executing. Modern batch operating systems now support interaction. For example, you can schedule a task, and when the specified time arrives, the computer acknowledges to the processor that the time is up.
How does batch operating system work?
The paring system keeps a number of jobs in memory and executes them one by one. Jobs are processed on a first come, first served basis. Each working set is defined as a batch.
When a task is finished, its memory is freed, and the output of the task is transferred to the output spool for later printing or processing. User interaction is limited in batch operating systems. When the system takes work from the user, the user is free. You can also use the batch processing system to update the data related to any transaction or record.
What is the role of batch operating system?
The primary role of a batch operating system is to automatically execute jobs in batches. The main function of the batch processing system is performed by the ‘Batch Monitor’, which is located at the lower end of the main memory. This technology has been made possible by the development of hard disk drives and card readers.
The Ting system automatically runs batch jobs one after the other, saving time by working only once. This resulted in a better system due to shorter turnaround times.
Characteristics of Batch Operating System
Batch operating system has various features. Some of them are as follows:
In this case, the CPU executes the jobs in the order they are sent by the operator, which means that the task sent first to the CPU will be executed first. Also known as ‘first come, first served’
The word job refers to the command or instruction that the user and the program must perform.
A batch operating system runs a set of user-supplied instructions composed of different instructions and programs with many similarities.
When a task is executed successfully, the OS releases the memory space held by that task.
The user does not directly interface with the operating system in the batch operating system; Rather, all instructions are sent to the operator.
The operator evaluates the user’s instructions and generates a set of instructions with similar properties.
What are the advantages of batch operating system?
- It is not easy to predict how long it will take to complete a task; Only batch system processors know how long it will take to complete the work in line.
- This system can easily manage large jobs again and again.
- The batch process can be divided into several stages to increase the processing speed.
- When a process is terminated, the next task from the job spool is run without any user interaction.
- CPU usage improves.
Disadvantages of Batch Operating System
When a task fails once, it must be scheduled for completion, and the task may take a long time to complete.
Computer operators should have complete knowledge of batch system.
Debugging a batch system is quite difficult.
There is no direct contact between the computer system and the user.
If one job enters an infinite loop, other jobs must wait for an unknown period of time.
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