What is Data Independence?

What is Data Independence?

One of the most important considerations of the database system is data independence. It can be defined as the capacity to changing the schema at one level of a database system without affecting the other schema at the next higher level.

There are two types of data independence

  1. Logical
  2. Physical


It is capable to change the conceptual schema without having to changes external schemas. The changing of the conceptual schema to expand the database to change constraints or to reduce the database.


It is the capacity to changes the internet schema without having to changes the conceptual schema. hence the external schema need not be changed as well as changes to the internet schema may be needed because some physical fitness had to be recognised.



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